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Acute myeloid leukemia causes changes to blood cell counts. The aim of any treatment for acute myeloid leukemia is to help control the abnormal leukemia cells and restore a balance of healthy blood cells.
Acute myeloid leukemia cannot be defined as a single disease, your symptoms will vary depending on the type of acute myeloid leukemia you have. Therefore, a variety of therapies are used for different types of acute myeloid leukemia and result in different outcomes.
Know AML has put together the animation below summarizing the treatment options available to people with acute myeloid leukemia.
The standard treatment for most people with acute myeloid leukemia is chemotherapy. Chemotherapy involves using anticancer drugs to destroy abnormal leukemia cells, which hopefully leads to remission. Chemotherapy is usually given in two main phases: (1) induction and (2) consolidation, which are explained in more detail below.
Induction chemotherapy is used in the first phase of treatment, it aims to kill abnormal leukemia cells and stop them from multiplying in the blood and bone marrow. The most common induction chemotherapies include cytarabine and an anthracycline drug (daunorubicin, idarubicin, or mitoxantrone); these are mostly offered to people younger than 60 years old, or people who are aged over 60 years and considered ‘fit’. Another treatment used for induction chemotherapy is the combination of daunorubicin and cytarabine (CPX-351), which is approved in the United States and Europe to treat people with specific types of acute myeloid leukemia, including therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes. Induction chemotherapy can sometimes be administered with other drugs that target specific changes on or in leukemia cells, known as targeted therapies.
Consolidation chemotherapy aims to kill and remove abnormal leukemia cells that may remain after induction chemotherapy, but that cannot be detected. This reduces the risk of the leukemia cells multiplying and the subsequent return of acute myeloid leukemia. The consolidation phase involves further treatment with chemotherapy, often with the same drugs that were used in the induction phase.
Often, chemotherapy and targeted therapies are followed by a stem cell transplant. This is because some acute myeloid leukemia therapies will remove a proportion of normal, healthy blood cells along with the leukemia cells. A stem cell transplant is used to introduce stem cells that go on to produce healthy blood cells.
Standard intensive chemotherapy may not be appropriate for you because of additional factors, such as age or other health conditions. However, there are still several treatment options available, including glasdegib with LDAC (low-dose cytarabine), low-intensity HMAs (hypomethylating agents) such as azacitidine and decitabine, and supportive care. Venetoclax can be used in combination with LDAC or an HMA for people who are ineligible for intensive chemotherapy.
Currently, treatment approaches for relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia depend on a risk–benefit assessment, which analyzes the likely benefit of further therapy as well as the potential risks associated with it. The treatment decision is based on a number of factors, including age, length of remission, genetics, any previous stem cell transplant, general health status, and the patient’s wishes.
If considered eligible for intensive chemotherapy, treatment options include the following:
If intensive chemotherapy is not considered appropriate, the following treatment options are recommended:
Enrollment into a clinical trial may also be an option for people with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia.
Maintenance therapy refers to lower intensity treatments that may be offered to you following an intensive treatment course or if you are unable to complete intensive treatment. The aim of maintenance therapy is to lower the risk of relapse and prolong survival, while minimizing side effects.
When talking about medicines, a formulation refers to how the different components are combined to make a product that can be given easily. Advances in chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia include attempts to make the treatment safer, more effective, or more convenient. With this in mind, improvements to traditional chemotherapy have been developed, such as:
In recent years, a number of new drugs have been developed to target specific markers found in or on leukemia cells. These advances have resulted in targeted drugs, which work differently to standard chemotherapy and can be useful if particular abnormalities have been identified. Generally, targeted therapies have higher specificity for leukemia cells and aim to minimize side effects. Some approved targeted treatments for different types of acute myeloid leukemia are shown below.
Approximately 30% of people with acute myeloid leukemia have abnormal changes in a gene called FLT3. These genetic changes give rise to different forms of the FLT3 protein, which can lead to the growth of leukemia cells.
Midostaurin: A drug that targets the abnormal FLT3 protein and blocks its function. Midostaurin can be used with standard chemotherapy to treat people who have abnormal changes in the FLT3 gene.
Gilteritinib: A drug that binds to the FLT3 protein and blocks its function. Gilteritinib can be used to treat people who have abnormal changes in the FLT3 gene.
In some people with acute myeloid leukemia, abnormal changes are detected in the IDH1 or IHD2 genes, which interfere with normal cell processes.
Ivosidenib: A drug that blocks the function of the IDH1 protein in leukemia cells. Ivosidenib can be used to treat people who have abnormal changes in the IDH1 gene.
Enasidenib: A drug that blocks the function of the IDH2 protein in leukemia cells. Enasidenib can be used to treat people with abnormal changes in the IDH2 gene.
BCL‑2 is a protein found inside cells that helps leukemia cells to survive.
Venetoclax: A drug that blocks the BCL‑2 protein, resulting in increased leukemia cell death. Venetoclax can be used to treat people who are aged 75 years and older or those who have other medical conditions that prevent the use of standard chemotherapy.
In a cell, the ‘hedgehog pathway’ is a finely tuned network of signaling molecules that are important in early-life development. In acute myeloid leukemia, disturbances in this pathway can give rise to cells that are resistant to certain treatments, helping leukemia cells survive.
Glasdegib: A drug that blocks the hedgehog pathway. Glasdegib can be used to treat people who are aged 75 years and older or who have other medical conditions that prevent the use of standard chemotherapy.
Antibody–drug conjugates contain an antibody (a synthetic immune protein that recognizes a specific target on leukemia cells) and an anticancer drug. The antibody is used to guide the drug to the leukemia cells, where it can destroy them.
Gemtuzumab ozogamicin: A drug made up of an antibody that specifically recognizes CD33 (a protein found on leukemia cells) and a chemotherapy drug.
Clinical trials are medical studies involving people and are a key step towards optimizing treatments for different diseases. A clinical trial may be designed with the aim of improving current therapies or to investigate how safe and effective a new treatment is. There are various ongoing clinical trials investigating treatment options for acute myeloid leukemia.
A patient with acute myeloid leukemia may not respond to the therapies that are currently approved, and certain types of acute myeloid leukemia have little to no treatment options available. Therefore, taking part in a clinical trial may be the best option for some people and could provide the opportunity for effective disease treatment/management.
Treatments for any medical condition can cause side effects. The side effects you may experience can vary depending on the treatment, i.e., chemotherapy/targeted therapy, and your overall health. For most people, side effects are temporary and will go away after treatment has finished or following changes to the treatment regimen, such as altered dosing.
Common side effects of treatment for acute myeloid leukemia include tiredness, increased risk of infection (impaired immune system), nausea, vomiting, hair loss, rashes, and low levels of red blood cells (anemia). Your leukemia specialist should advise you of the common side effects associated with any treatment you may have.
If you have any questions or concerns regarding treatment options, clinical trials, or side effects, reach out to your leukemia specialist.
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